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Project Description
CARMA is a media annotation program that collects continuous ratings from researchers or study participants while displaying audio and video files.

CARMA is a media annotation program that collects continuous ratings while displaying audio and video files. It is designed to be highly user-friendly and easily customizable. Based on Gottman and Levenson's affect rating dial, CARMA enables researchers and study participants to provide moment-by-moment ratings of multimedia files using a computer mouse or joystick. The rating scale can be configured on a number of parameters including the labels for its upper and lower bounds, its numerical range, and its visual representation. Annotations can be displayed alongside the multimedia file and saved for easy import into statistical analysis software. CARMA provides a tool for researchers in affective computing, human-computer interaction, and the social sciences who need to capture the unfolding of subjective experience and observable behavior over time.

CARMA was first published by Jeffrey Girard in 2014 under the GNU General Public License version 3 (GPUv3). Additional information about the license can be found at: Users are free to use, distribute, and modify the program as outlined in the license. Later in 2014, Jeffrey Girard adapted CARMA into DARMA: Dual Axis Rating and Media Annotation, a similar program that enables users to annotate two dimensions simultaneously using a computer joystick.

Users must agree to cite the following article in all publications making use of CARMA:

Girard, J.M. 2014. CARMA: Software for Continuous Affect Rating and Media Annotation. Journal of Open Research Software 2(1):e5, doi: 10.5334/

author = {Girard, Jeffrey M},
doi = {10.5334/},
journal = {Journal of Open Research Software},
number = {1},
pages = {e5},
title = CARMA: Software for continuous affect rating and media annotation,
volume = {2},
year = {2014}

Note that CARMA has changed a lot since this article was published. See this website for current details.

Papers Using CARMA

  • Leins, D. A., Zimmerman, L. A., & Polander, E. N. (2017). Observers’ real-time sensitivity to deception in naturalistic interviews. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. doi: 10.1007/s11896-017-9224-2
  • Hammal, Z., Cohn, J. F., Heike, C., & Speltz, M. L. (2015). What can head and facial movements convey about positive and negative affect? In Proceedings of the International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction. doi: 10.1109/ACII.2015.7344584
  • Hammal, Z., Cohn, J. F., Heike, C., & Speltz, M. L. (2015). Automatic measurement of head and facial movement for analysis and detection of infants’ positive and negative affect. Frontiers in ICT, 2(21). doi: 10.3389/fict.2015.00021
  • Dworkin, J. (2015). Capturing emotional suppression as it naturally unfolds in couple interactions. Haverford College. Retrieved from

Last edited Sun at 4:34 PM by jmgirard, version 93